Saturday, May 23, 2020

Biography of Edmonia Lewis, American Sculptor

Edmonia Lewis (c. July 4, 1844–September 17, 1907) was an American sculptor of African-American and Native American heritage. Her work, which features themes of freedom and abolition, became popular after the Civil War and earned her numerous accolades. Lewis depicted African, African-American, and Native American people in her work, and she is particularly recognized for her naturalism within the neoclassical genre. Fast Facts: Edmonia Lewis Known For: Lewis was a sculptor who used neoclassical elements to depict African-American and Native American people.Born:  July 4 or July 14, in either 1843 or 1845, possibly in upstate New YorkDied: September 17, 1907 in London, EnglandOccupation: Artist (sculptor)Education: Oberlin CollegeNotable Works:  Forever Free  (1867),  Hagar  in the Wilderness  (1868),  The Old Arrow Maker and His Daughter  (1872), The Death of  Cleopatra  (1875)Notable Quote: I was practically driven to Rome in order to obtain the opportunities for art culture, and to find a social atmosphere where I was not constantly reminded of my color. The land of liberty had not room for a colored sculptor. Early Life Edmonia Lewis was one of two children born to a mother of Native American and African-American heritage.  Her father, an African Haitian, was a gentlemens servant. Her birthdate and birthplace (possibly New York or Ohio) are in doubt. Lewis may have been born on July 14 or July 4, in either 1843 or 1845. She herself claimed her birthplace was upstate New York.   Lewis spent her early childhood with her mothers people, the Mississauga band of Ojibway (Chippewa Indians). She was known as Wildfire, and her brother was called Sunrise. After they were orphaned when Lewis was about 10 years old, two aunts took them in. They lived near Niagara Falls in northern New York. Education Sunrise, with wealth from the California Gold Rush and from working as a barber in Montana, financed his sisters education that included prep school and Oberlin College. She studied art at Oberlin beginning in 1859. Oberlin was one of very few schools at the time to admit either women or people of color. Lewiss time there, though, was not without its difficulties. In 1862, two white girls at Oberlin accused her of attempting to poison them. Lewis was acquitted of the charges but was subjected to verbal attacks and a beating by anti-abolitionist vigilantes. Even though Lewis was not convicted in the incident, Oberlins administration refused to allow her to enroll the next year to complete her graduation requirements. Early Success in New York After leaving Oberlin, Lewis went to Boston and  New York to study with sculptor Edward Brackett, who was introduced to her by abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. Soon, abolitionists began to publicize her work.  Lewiss first bust was of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, a white Bostonian who led black troops in the Civil War. She sold copies of the bust, and with the proceeds she was eventually able to move to Rome, Italy. Move to Marble and Neoclassical Style In Rome, Lewis joined a large artistic community that included other women sculptors such as Harriet Hosmer, Anne Whitney, and Emma Stebbins. She began to work in marble and adopted the neoclassical style, which included elements of ancient Greek and Roman art. Concerned with racist assumptions that she wasnt really responsible for her work, Lewis worked alone and was not part of the community that drew buyers to Rome. Among her patrons in America was abolitionist and feminist Lydia Maria Child. Lewis converted to Roman Catholicism during her time in Italy. Lewis told a friend that she lived within the city of Rome to support her art: There is nothing so beautiful as the free forest. To catch a fish when you are hungry, cut the boughs of a tree, make a fire to roast it, and eat it in the open air, is the greatest of all luxuries. I would not stay a week pent up in cities, if it were not for my passion for art. Edmonia Lewis most famous sculpture: The Death of Cleopatra (1876). Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain Famous Sculptures Lewis had some success, especially among American tourists, for her depictions of African, African-American, and Native American people. Egyptian themes were, at the time, considered representations of Black Africa. Her work has been criticized for the Caucasian look of many of her female figures, though their costuming is considered more ethnically accurate. Among her best-known sculptures are Forever Free (1867), a sculpture commemorating the ratification of the 13th Amendment and which depicts a black man and woman celebrating the Emancipation Proclamation; Hagar in the Wildnerness, a sculpture of the Egyptian handmaiden of Sarah and Abraham, mother of Ishmael; The Old Arrow-Maker and His Daughter, a scene of Native Americans; and The Death of Cleopatra, a depiction of the Egyptian queen. Lewis created the The Death of Cleopatra for the 1876 Philadelphia Centenniel, and it was also displayed at the 1878 Chicago Exposition. The sculpture was lost for a century. It turned out to have been displayed on the grave of a race track owners favorite horse, Cleopatra, while the track was transformed first into a golf course and then a munitions plant. With another building project, the statue was moved and then rediscovered, and in 1987 it was restored. It is now part of the collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Death Lewis disappeared from public view in the late 1880s. Her last known sculpture was completed in 1883, and Frederick Douglass met with her in Rome in 1887. A Catholic magazine reported on her in 1909 and there was a report of her in Rome in 1911. For a long time, no definitive death date was known for Edmonia Lewis. In 2011, cultural historian Marilyn Richardson uncovered evidence from British records that she was living in the Hammersmith area of London and died in the Hammersmith Borough Infirmary on September 17, 1907, despite those reports of her in 1909 and 1911. Legacy Though she received some attention in her lifetime, Lewis and her innovations were not widely recognized until after her death. Her work has been featured in several posthumous exhibitions; some of her most famous pieces now reside in the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Cleveland Museum of Art. Sources Atkins, Jeannine.  Stone Mirrors: The Sculpture and Silence of Edmonia Lewis.  Simon Schuster, 2017.Buick, Kirsten.  Child of the Fire: Mary Edmonia Lewis and the Problem of Art History’s Black and Indian Subject.  Duke University Press, 2009.Henderson, Albert.  The Indomitable Spirit of Edmonia Lewis: A Narrative Biography.  Esquiline Hill Press, 2013.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Love in Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston...

Love is different for each and every person. For some, it comes easy and happens early in life. For others, such as Janie in Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston, it happened much later in life after two unsuccessful marriages. Janie’s grandmother, Nanny raised Janie to be attracted to financial security and physical protection instead of seeking love. Nanny continually emphasized that love was something that was bound to happen after those needs were met; even though Nanny never married. Janie formulates her ideal of love while sitting under a pear tree as a teenager; one that fulfilled her intellectually, emotionally, spiritually and physically. She was then informed that she was to have an arranged marriage to an older†¦show more content†¦However, she quickly learns that Logan, finds her useless, â€Å"spoilt rotten† and compares her to his old wife, who did manual labor for him without many complaints (26). Not only does Janie find Logan unat tractive, but she does not even find him intellectually or emotionally stimulating, as he never shows her affection (24). Attempting to gain some perspective on how to liven up her marriage, Janie seeks out the advice of her Nanny, an unmarried former slave. Janie claims that she â€Å"wants to want him sometimes† (23), but her efforts are in vain. Due to the conditions Nanny was raised in, Nanny told her granddaughter that love was bound to happen eventually because Logan was financially stable. Nanny did not understand Janie’s wishes of love; she was on a basic level of understanding. While Janie obeyed Nanny’s wish of her to stay with Logan for almost a year, when Janie knew the marriage was headed nowhere except disaster, she runs off with a man named Joe Sparks who she had correspondence with for almost a year. Janie concluded from her time with Logan â€Å"that marriage did not make love† (25). Janie’s view on love did not change with her rel ationship with Logan. In fact, it was because of the horrendous outcomes of the marriage that Janie decided to chase after her ideal relationship withShow MoreRelatedThe Meaning of Love and Loss in Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston1435 Words   |  6 PagesTheir Eyes Were Watching God is a novel about a woman and the trials and tribulations that she goes through while trying to find the true meaning of love and loss. In the novel Janie struggles to find someone that honestly loves her and she has to deal with the lost she felt when the she realized that the love that she received is forever lost. Some major themes in the novel would be work, sexuality, freedom and love. All of these themes are important in understanding the novel. There are numerousRead More Zora Neale Hurston and Racial Equality Essay1284 Words   |  6 PagesZora Neale Hurston and Racial Equality       On September eighteenth, nineteen thirty-seven, Their Eyes Were Watching God, one of the greatest novels of this century, was published. It was met with mixed reviews. The major (white) periodicals found it enjoyable and simple, while black literary circles said it carries no theme, no message (Wright,1937). These evaluations are not mutually exclusive, but rather demonstrate the conception of Hurstons work as telling whites what they want to hearRead More Zora Neale Hurston Essay1149 Words   |  5 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Zora Neale Hurston was a phenomenal woman. At the height of her success she was known as the â€Å"Queen of the Harlem Renaissance.† She came to overcome obstacles that were placed in front of her. Hurston rose from poverty to fame and lost it all at the time of her death. Zora had an unusual life; she was a child that was forced to grow up to fast. But despite Zora Neale Hurston’s unsettled life, she managed to surmount every obstacle to become one of the most profound authorsRead MoreTheir Eyes Were Watching God1019 Words   |  4 PagesZora Neale Hurston’s novel highly praised novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God, was once denounced by many critics because it was categorized as a feminist novel. However, through further analyzation, the novel is now viewed simply as a protagonist developing a feminist conscience throughout her marriages. Zora Neale Hurston was born in Natasulga, Alabama on January 7, 1891. Mrs. Hurston was the fifth of eight children to John Hurston, a carpenter and Baptist preacher, and Lucy Potts Hurston, aRead MoreZora Neale Hurston1163 Words   |  5 PagesZora Neale Hurston Zora Neale Hurston was a phenomenal woman. At the height of her success she was known as the Queen of the Harlem Renaissance. She came to overcome obstacles that were placed in front of her. Hurston rose from poverty to fame and lost it all at the time of her death. Zora had an unusual life; she was a child that was forced to grow up to fast. But despite Zora Neale Hurstons unsettled life, she managed to surmount every obstacle to become one of the most profound authorsRead MoreOprah Had No Eyes to See Her Make a Monstrosity1500 Words   |  6 PagesOprah Had No Eyes to See Her Make a Monstrosity Oprah’s movie did Zora Neale Hurston’s novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God, an injustice when Oprah changed the entire purpose of the book. The changes made to characters, relationships, and the effects of symbolism makes the story unrecognizable. Their Eyes Were Watching God transforms into a love story and the title changes which alters the entire plot, even some settings change. Oprah truly slaughtered a work of art and her ignorance of the meaningRead MoreThe Impact of Hurstons Life Experiences on the Character Janie in Their Eyes Were Watching God778 Words   |  4 PagesTheir Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston explores the life of an African American woman from the south who is trying to find herself. The protagonist of this novel is Janie Crawford. She is trying to defy what people expect of her, and she lives her life searching to have a better life. Zora Neale Hurston’s life experiences influence the book in many ways, including language, per sonality, and life experiences. Through her use of southern black language in the book Zora Neale HurstonRead More Janie’s Growth in Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston1356 Words   |  6 PagesJanie’s Growth in Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston    In the novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God, by Zora Neale Hurston, Janie has allowed us to better understand the restraints that women in society had to deal with in a male dominated society. Her marriage with Logan Killicks consisted of dull, daily routines.   Wedding herself to Joe Starks brought her closer to others, than to herself.   In her final marriage to Vergible Woods, also known as Tea Cake, she finally learnedRead MoreTheir Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston988 Words   |  4 PagesZora Hurston was an African American proto-feminist author who lived during a time when both African Americans and women were not treated equally. Hurston channeled her thirst for women’s dependence from men into her book Their Eyes Were Watching God. One of the many underlying themes in her book is feminism. Zora Hurston, the author of the book, uses Janie to represent aspects of feminism in her book as well as each relationship Janie had to represent her moving close r towards her independenceRead MoreTheir Eyes Were Watching God1571 Words   |  7 PagesZora Neale Hurston and her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God During the Harlem Renaissance, African Americans experience a cultural exposure in literature art. It was a period of great achievement in African-American art and literature during the 1920s and 1930s. This surge gave birth to several authors, playwrights and dramatists, such as Zora Neale Hurston. Zora Neale Hurston is now considered among the foremost authors of that period, having published four novels, three nonfiction works, and

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Understanding the Principles and Practices of Assessment...

Unit 3 – Principles and practice of assessment Introduction; Assessment is viewed as a critical part of teaching and learning to ensure that the required outcomes and criteria for the qualification are achieved by both the tutor and the student. Assessment is the means of obtaining information, which allows teachers, pupils and parents to make judgements about pupil progress. The starting point for this is the curriculum and the processes of learning and teaching. Assessment is a tool for reflection on programme construction and teaching. It measures the success of learning, teaching and achievement and guides the next steps to be achieved. Assessment is a reflective tool designed to check understanding and development†¦show more content†¦As well as the student being assessed, the teacher will be following a programme of self assessment and should maintain a good reflective practice of their own, to ensure they are teaching up to date information and reviewing their teaching styles continually. The application form together with an interview pre enrolment will assess the learners past learning experiences, existing skills and crucially will ascertain if the course is the correct one for the learner. An interview will allow further evaluation of the learner’s motivational levels, verbal skills together with appearance and social proficiency. So for example a music audition and interview will allow me to discover the students vocal or musical ability, their individual music style, their confidence level, their previous performance experience, and also what their musical goals are. Once enrolled on a specific course ice breakers can be used as another form of initial assessment. Diagnostic tests are also included in primary assessments to measure a learner’s skills and numeracy and literacy levels so there is no delay in arranging learning support if needed. Learning styles should be identified as part of the initial assessment procedure, making the tutor aware o f each learner’s individual learning preferences and crucially how best the learner will learn.Show MoreRelatedEssay on Assessment1124 Words   |  5 PagesTAQA UNIT 301 UNDERSTANDING THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTIES OF ASSESSMENT 1.1 EXPLAIN THE FUNCATIONS OF ASSESSSMENT IN LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT. During the initial assessment the assessor must ensure the learner knowledge performance and practical skills. The assessor must ensure that the learning understands their course, The assessor must explain all the units to the learner and support them in choosing the most suited units for their learner. The assessor and the learner must decide on anRead MoreExplain How to Plan Essay1008 Words   |  5 PagesUnderstanding the Principles and Practices of Assessment Q1 - Explain the Function of assessment in learning and development The assessment cycle continues until all aspects of the qualification have been achieved by the learner:- Initial assessment – Prior knowledge of the subject to determine teaching style. Assessment planning – agree what types and methods of assessments are to take place Assessment Activity – what methods, e.g. observational/ assignments/ questioning Assessment decisionsRead Morea1 assessor834 Words   |  4 PagesUnderstanding the Principles and Practices of Assessment. 1. Explain the functions of assessment in learning and development The function of assessment in learning and development is primarily to provide a measure of the students progress. Assessment is carried out through formative (checks throughout the course), passive (to test against previous marks), and/ or summative (at end of course) activities to help the learner see their development whilst allowing the Assessor toRead MoreUnderstanding the Principles of Assessment946 Words   |  4 Pages Unit 1: Understanding the Principles and Practices of Assessment 1. Understand the principles and requirements of assessment 2.1 explain the functions of assessment and development Initial assessment is the process which identifies learners needs and can determine where the learner may progress to. Initial assessment can assist in the development of an individual learning plan, giving the learner the opportunity to: Read MoreTAQA 301 Essay810 Words   |  4 PagesASSIGNMENT/DISCUSSION FOR UNIT 301 Understanding the principles and practices of assessment Assess criteria 1.1, 1.2 Description Define the key concepts and principles of assessment and explain its functions in learning and development. †¢ What is the purpose of assessment? †¢ What does assessment aim to achieve? †¢ How does assessment impact and relate with learning and development? †¢ Explain the definition of formative and summative assessment. †¢ Why is initial assessment important and how and whenRead MoreAssessment Process663 Words   |  3 Pagesyour knowledge and understanding in an assignment type format. If you choose the assignment format, please make reference to the criteria numbers in the margins adjacent to relevant paragraphs. Record your responses in the spaces that follow each set of bullet points. The table will expand as you type. Although some questions may appear similar, there are subtle differences that need to be considered if you are sign-posting one answer to another. Criteria Number Assessment Criteria 1.1 ExplainRead MoreUnderstanding roles, responsibilities and relationships in education and training1094 Words   |  5 PagesAssignment 301 Understanding roles, responsibilities and relationships in education and training. Task B Reflective Account In this assignment I will discuss key aspects of legislation, regulatory requirements and codes of practice relating to my own role as a Creative Learning Practitioner working with adults. I will reflect on the Teacher/Training cycle and make reference to where my role is relevant and any boundaries involved when working with students in a creative setting. I willRead MoreTaqa Level 3 in Assessing Candidates Vocational Essay1623 Words   |  7 Pages Assignment 2 Unit 301: Understanding the principles and practices of assessment.Unit 302: Assess occupational competence in the work environment.Unit 303: Assess vocational skills, knowledge and understanding. | Trainee Assessor Name | Assessor Trainer Name | | | In this evidence you will need to explain your understanding of the principles and requirements of your assessment practices. 1. Explain how peer and self assessment can be used to promote effective learner involvementRead MoreBackward Design, a planning guide1555 Words   |  7 Pageseffective people in various fields are goal-oriented and plan with the end in mind. Although not a new idea, the deliberate use of backward design for planning curriculum units and courses results in more clearly defined goals, more appropriate assessments, more tightly aligned lessons, and more purposeful teaching. The backward design process explained by Wiggins McTighe begins with the end in mind: â€Å"One starts with the end - the desired results (goals or standards) - and then derives the curriculumRead MoreCreating A Udl Instructional Plan1546 Words   |  7 PagesCreating a UDL Instructional Plan This assignment is another opportunity to apply the principles of universal design for learning (UDL) in the design of instruction and assessment. In this assignment, a lesson plan is developed, incorporating UDL and effectively leveraging educational technologies in the classroom. Part I: Instructional Plan Lesson Overview Title: Reading, Rhyme and Vocabulary Author: [Rick Akura] Subject: Reading/Language Arts Grade Level(s): Pre-K–2 Duration: 85 minutes ï‚ § Unit

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Introduction. Since The Early 1990S The Transfer Of Juvenile

Introduction Since the early 1990s the transfer of Juvenile waiver has been an enormously heavy topic on whether a juvenile is fully culpable of a crime or not. The option of juvenile waiver has been a proceeding ethical argument between the courts and the families of the juvenile. According to Forst and Blomquist (2012), criticism involving the juvenile system began in the 1960s and expanded into the 1970s because of the soaring crime rates. The desire for juvenile waiver began with the interpretation that the System failed because of these crime rates. Although juvenile systems across the nation, controversy surrounds the topic of Juvenile justice. There is a constant search for who is in control of the child that is being held in court.†¦show more content†¦Therefore, Juvenile Waiver has changed in legal ways over the years. Much of the legal reform took over the way Juveniles were handled in the 1900s Kurleychek and Johnson (0000) The reform took place because of the frightened momen t of â€Å"super predators† who were viewed as adult criminals instead of their juvenile counterparts. This viewpoint changed the way prosecutors dealt with Juveniles. Over â…” of prosecutors in the mid-1900s had sent at least one Juvenile to an adult court. Kurleychek and Johnson (0000) Determinants of Juvenile Waiving What determines a juvenile to be transferred to a criminal court is based on the criteria of each statute that the state holds. In all but two states, the judge of the juvenile court is entitled to decide whether a juvenile holds the specifics to be transferred to a criminal court. Criteria can be vague and hold no true experience which makes it strenuous for a decision of waiver. Fagan and Deschenes (1990) found in their study that under the four states in which they researched, the four statutes hold a mixture of specific, and non-specific criterion. The criteria that is used is the only â€Å"official† guidance for the juvenile judge’s court decision. In response to these criterion, many policy-makers, and politicians, because of the growing fearsShow MoreRelatedShould Juveniles Be Tried And Punished Under The Same Judicial System As Adults?2773 Words   |  12 PagesShould Juveniles Be Tried and Punished Under the Same Judicial Syst em as Adults? Krystal Williamson CRMJ 510 – Criminal Justice Research Dr. Evaristus Obinyan April 20, 2014 Table of Contents Abstract According to statistics, juveniles being tried as adults is not a new phenomenon. Since the beginning of the juvenile court, juveniles have been eligible to be tried as adults for the commission of capital crimes. However, starting in the 1960s and 1970s andRead MoreJuvenile Justice System And For Reducing Juvenile Crime Rates2187 Words   |  9 Pages I. INTRODUCTION Regardless of what nation an individual resides in, certain issues are universally important. Examples include crime, economics, education, family, healthcare, homelessness, poverty, and many others. The United States is now the world leader in its rate of incarceration. Over the past 25 years, juvenile crime has skyrocketed, with drug crimes, gang violence, school shootings, and other violent acts being regularly featured in the news. During the past 10 years, nearly all 50Read MoreJuveniles in the Adult Justice System3336 Words   |  13 PagesTopic: Juveniles do not belong in the Adult Justice System. Authorities who waive Juveniles into the Adult Justice System are making a devastating impact on their futures Abstract This paper is about the most controversial subject in the penal system today, i.e. should juveniles be treated as adults and be tried in the adult justice system and the negative impact on their lives. This becomes relevant after the judgment in Roper Vs Simmons (1995) which states that there is a doubt as to whenRead MoreDo Games Kill3612 Words   |  15 Pagesthat the shooters loved Doom, making it appear that the critics predictions about video games were coming true.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  But in the ten years following Dooms release, homicide arrest rates fell by 77 percent among juveniles. School shootings remain extremely rare; even during the 1990s, when fears of school violence were high, students had less than a 7 in 10 million chance of being killed at school. During that time, video games became a major part of many young peoples lives, few of whom willRead MoreThe Problems Of Farmed Salmon2169 Words   |  9 PagesIn recent years Pacific salmon have felt the true burdens of the aquaculture productions of farmed salmon in the natural rivers that have hosted these salmon for centuries. Salmon farming has been on the rise since the early 1990s and over these twenty-five years, it has put an immense amount of pressure on the wild salmon population and their ability to spawn. These negative impacts can be directly link to numerous problems with farmed salmon, which includes the pollution and contamination theyRead MoreJuvenile Crime Issues in T oday’s Criminal Justice System18893 Words   |  76 Pagesrights that may be threatened by technological advances and other developments:  ©  ©  ©  © chapter 15 Juvenile Justice chapter 16 Drugs and Crime chapter 17 Terrorism and Multinational Criminal Justice chapter 18 The Future of Criminal Justice These individual rights must be effectively balanced against these present and emerging community concerns: Widespread drug abuse among youth The threat of juvenile crime Urban gang violence High-technology, computer, and Internet crime (cybercrime) TerrorismRead MoreEssay Juvenile Delinquency5272 Words   |  22 PagesJuvenile Delinquency Amy Cowan CRJ 422 Prof. Angela Hermosillo November 15, 2010 Juvenile Delinquency Introduction Can we as a society truly reduce the rate of juvenile crime and violence? â€Å"Throughout all time there has been delinquency. It may not have had the delinquency label, but it still existed. Juvenile crime is mentioned as far back as ancient Sumeria and Hammurabi, where laws concerning juvenile offenders first appear in writtenRead MoreThe Relationship Between Child Maltreatment And Delinquency3358 Words   |  14 PagesJUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND DRUG USE Childhood Maltreatment and Delinquency By Ebele Udeogalanya St. John’s University CRM 119 Dr. Marquis R. White October 22nd 2014 I. Introduction and Justification This thesis proposal hopes to examine the relationship between child maltreatment in the form of physical abuse, psychological and emotional abuse, sexual abuse and neglect and subsequent juvenile delinquency as well as future adult criminal offending. Physical abuseRead MoreFactors That Affect The Nervous System ( Sns ) And Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal ( Hpa )8211 Words   |  33 PagesAbstract Adverse early life experience affects physiological and behavioral development, leading to differences in life-history outcomes. One key component is the relationship between the developing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent studies have suggested an association between early life adversity (ELA) and asymmetry in cortisol (a measure of HPA axis activation) and salivary alpha-amylase (a correlate of SNS activation) responses to stressRead MoreA Case Of Nuturant Care : Adoption Of A Presumed Delphinus Calf By Bottlenose Dolphin3289 Words   |  14 PagesKey Words: adoption, epimeletic care, nurturant behaviour, succorant behaviour, allomaternal care, allomother, alloparental, inter-species, bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, common dolphin, Delphinus spp., Bay of Islands, New Zealand Introduction Inter-specific behavioural interactions in the order Cetacea are varied and often complex, including predation (Jefferson et al. 1991, Visser 1999), â€Å"harassment† (Shane et al. 1995; Palacios and Mate 1996; Weller et al., 1996), interspecific mating

Managing Quality in Partnership Working with Service Users Free Essays

Central College London Module Study Guide G: Managing Quality in Partnership Working Graduate Diploma in Health and Social Care – Level 5 Module G: Managing Quality in Partnership Working The learner will: 1 Understand differing perspectives of quality and partnership working in relation to health and social care services Partnership: empowerment; independence; autonomy; power; informed choice; staff and organisation groups eg statutory, voluntary, private, independent, charitable; service users Quality: audit; quality control; role of agencies eg Care Quality Commission, NICE; role of staff and users; quality perspectives eg Servqual-Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry; technical quality; functional quality http://areas. kenan-flagler. unc. We will write a custom essay sample on Managing Quality in Partnership Working with Service Users or any similar topic only for you Order Now edu/Marketing/FacultyStaff/zeithaml/Selected%20Publications/SERVQUAL-%20A%20Multiple-Item%20Scale%20for%20Measuring%20Consumer%20Perceptions%20of%20Service%20Quality. pdf The learner can: 1. 1 Discuss the philosophy of working in partnership in health and social care 1. Analyse the role of external agencies in setting standards and the impact this has on service quality The learner will: 2 Understand how to promote partnership philosophies and relationships in health and social care services Partnership working: empowerment; theories of collaborative working; informed decision making; confidentiality; professional roles and responsibilities; models of working eg unified, coordinated, coalition and hybrid models; management structures; communication methods; inter-disciplinary and inter-agency working and joint working agreements. Legislation: current and relevant legislation eg safeguarding, equality, diversity, disability, data protection Organisational practices and policies: current and relevant practices; agreed ways of working; services planning procedures and employment practices for different bodies ie statutory, voluntary, specialist units; risk assessment procedures The learner can: 2. 1 Compare models of partnership working and discuss how differences in working practices and policies affect collaborative working across the sector 2. Evaluate current legislation and organisational practices and policies for partnership working in health and social care The learner will: 3Understand strategies for achieving quality in health and social care services Standards: minimum standards; best practice; benchmarks; performance indicators; charters; codes of practice; legislation eg local, national, European Implementing quality: planning, policies and procedures; target setting; audit; monitoring; review; reso urces (financial, equipment, personnel, accommodation); communication; information; adapting to change Barriers: external (inter-agency interactions, legislation, social policy); internal (risks, resources, organisational structures, interactions between people) The learner can: 3. 1 Explain the standards that exist in health and social care for measuring quality 3. 2 Evaluate different approaches to implementing quality systems 3. 3 Analyse potential barriers to delivery of quality health and social care services The learner will: 4Evaluate the outcomes of partnership working for users of services, professionals and organisations in health and social care services Outcomes for service users: positive eg improved services, empowerment, autonomy, informed decision making; negative eg neglect, abuse, harm, anger, miscommunication, information overload, confusion, duplication of service provision, disempowerment Outcomes for professionals: positive eg coordinated service provision, professional approach, clear roles and responsibilities, organised communication, preventing mistakes, efficient use of resources; negative eg professional conflict, miscommunication, time wasting, mismanagement of funding Outcomes for organisations: positive eg coherent approach, shared principles, comprehensive service provision, common working practices, integrated services; negative eg communication breakdown, disjointed service provision, increased costs, loss of shared purpose Barriers to partnership working: lack of understanding of roles and responsibilities; negative attitudes; lack of communication; not sharing information; different priorities; different attitudes and values Strategies to improve outcomes: communication; information sharing; consultation; negotiation; models of empowerment; collective multi-agency working; dealing with conflict; stakeholder analysis The learner can: 4. 1 Analyse outcomes and barriers for partnership working for users of services, professionals and organisations 4. 2 Describe strategies to improve outcomes for partnership working in health and social care services The learner will: 5 Understand methodologies for evaluating health and social care service quality Methods for assessing quality: questionnaires; focus groups; structured ans semi-structured interviews; panels, complaints procedures; open forums Perspectives: external eg inspection agencies; internal eg service standards; continuous improvement : mechanisms eg consultation, panels, user managed services The learner can: 5. 1 Analyse methods for evaluating health and social care service quality with regards to external and internal perspectives 5. 2 Discuss the impact that involving users of services in the evaluation process has on service quality ————————————————- Internal Assessment Guidance – Module D: Task 1 – Type of evidence: Presentation Assessment criteria: 1. 1, 1. 2, 4. 1, 4. 2 Additional information: Constitutes 30% of module mark Activity Review how a local health or social care provider engages with relevant partners in the delivery of their service, and how this can impact on the quality of the service they provide. You may already be familiar with this health or social care provider and have some knowledge of their approach to partnership and quality standards OR you can choose a provider and analyse their practice based on the information contained: * Within their marketing / promotional material On their website * Within their latest report from the Care Quality Commission (CQC) Please note in order to maintain confidentiality you can only refer to information that is available within the public domain Review their practice and answer the following questions in your presentation: a) How do they work in partnership with: outside agencies; specialist services; se rvice users; professional bodies; voluntary and other organisations? (1. 1) b) How do these partnerships impact the quality of service provided? 1. 2) c) Analyse outcomes and barriers for partnership working with service users within this service (4. 1) d) Describe strategies that could improve outcomes for partnership working within this service (4. 2) You will need to prepare a presentation of approximately 10 minutes duration to illustrate your answers to the questions above. In your presentation you need to include copies of slides and presentation notes and submit a copy to your assessor. Your final slide should list correctly any references used. Presentation date: Week 3 Task 2 – Type of evidence: Report Assessment criteria: All of 2, 3 and 5. Constitutes 50% of the module mark Additional information: Word limit 1500 words Activity Using information available related to the health or social care provider that was the focus of your presentation for Task 1, submit a report answering the following questions: 1) Identify positive aspects of partnership practice within the service, and discuss how partnership practice could be improved (2. ) 2) Evaluate how relevant legislation is implemented to affect organisational practice related to partnership working (2. 2) 3) Explain at least five standards that exist for measuring quality (3. 1) 4) Identify and evaluate approaches to implementing quality systems (3. 2) 5) Analyse any barriers or potential barriers to delivering a good quality service (3. 3) 6) Analyse methods used for evaluating the quality of the service provided (5. 1) 7) Discuss the impact of any involvement of services users in the evaluation of service quality (5. 2) In order to promote confidentiality, ensure that you only refer to material and information that is available within the public domain. All sources of evidence should be accurately referenced at the end of your report. Task 3- Essay (500-700 words) . This will constitute 20% of the module mark. Reflect and write an essay which will identify what you have learned from this module to include personal strengths and weaknesses during the learning process. Highlight any need that will require development for the future which would enhance your employability. Submission date: 17/05/2013 How to cite Managing Quality in Partnership Working with Service Users, Papers

Causes of Spectator Violence in Sports free essay sample

Causes of Spectator Violence in Sports As a season ticket holder for all Philadelphia Phillies and Philadelphia Eagles home games, I’ve seen my fair share of spectator violence over the years. The fact that Philadelphia has a reputation of having some of the rowdiest fans in sports has given me the unfortunate ability to witness spectator violence right before my eyes. There are many different types of spectator violence, as well as many different causes for them. As spectators, we must not only think about the instant repercussions of this violence, but we also need to think about the future repercussions of these actions. As spectator violence is becoming more prevalent in sports, the children spectators are going to start to believe that this is normal, and the violence will continue to worsen. In order to begin to rectify this issue of spectator violence, we must first identify the causes and warning signs. There are many different types of spectator violence. According to Tamara Madensen and John Eck, authors of â€Å"The Problem of Spectator Violence in Stadiums, these are the six most common forms of spectator aggression: 1. Verbal – singing, chanting, taunting, etc. . Gesturing – signaling to others with threatening or obscene motions. 3. â€Å"Missile† throwing – throwing items such as food, drinks, bricks, bottles, broken seats, and cell phones at particular or random targets 4. Swarming – rushing the field or court trying to gain entry, typically resulting in trampling of spectators 5. Property Destruction – either personal property or venue property 6. Physical – spitting, kicking, punching, stabbings, and shootings (1-2) All of these types of spectator violence can be highly dangerous. The â€Å"Missile† throwing and the physical violence are the most prevalent. Spectators are not always the only participants in these altercations. There have been instances where stadium personnel or athletes have been involved in altercations with fans. When this occurs, the wrong message is sent out to the rest of the spectators. The second an athlete or security personnel become involved in an altercation, the situation immediately worsens because fans begin to think it is acceptable. According to Stacey Hall, Associate Director of the National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security, â€Å"there are six event characteristics associated with spectator violence, including alcohol intoxication and availability, crowd demographics, event significance, performance quality, crowding, and performer behavior during duration of the event†(18). In order to come with a solution to spectator violence, it is important to identify the causes of these altercations. The most common cause of spectator violence in sports is alcohol intoxication. Everywhere you look in a professional sports stadium, you will see a kiosk, vendor, or bar selling alcohol. We all know that alcohol intoxication leads to poor decision making. When thousands of passionate fans are crammed together in an arena with alcohol being consumed, altercations are bound to occur. Often times, spectators arrive to the game early and â€Å"tailgate† with large quantities of alcohol and food to get ready for the game. If the Eagles are playing a 4PM football game, you will find hundreds of spectators in the parking lot at 8AM with kegs full of beer and music playing loudly. Drinking all day, along with watching a violent sport like football often times leads to violence. An angry, drunken sports fan, aggravated by the difficulty of getting to the event, parking, dealing with crowds, stirred up by a support group of pals, is easily provoked by the very presence of other violent behavior, namely that on the field,† Stanley Cheren, M. D. , of the Boston University School of Medicine wrote in â€Å"The Psychiatric Perspective: Psychological Aspects of Violen ce in Sports† in the February 1981 issue of the Journal of Sport and Social Issues (Appelson 404). The aggression that many spectators exhibit is often times connected to the aggression that they witness in the sport they are watching. It is no coincidence that the sports that have a higher level of aggression also have more incidents involving spectator violence. Hockey, Soccer, and Football are the three sports where we hear about the most fights and altercations in the stands. Yes, there are incidents in other sports such as Basketball and Baseball, but they are few and far between. When fans see the athletes acting aggressively, it quickly elevates the aggression level in the stands (Adamson 404). Hockey is the only sport where fighting is actually NOT frowned upon amongst the athletes. In fact, it’s almost glorified. If you ever watch a sporting event, other than hockey, where a fight breaks out or there is an altercation in the stands, the camera quickly pans away from it, or the station goes to commercial. In hockey, the announcers begin announcing the fight as if it were a boxing match. It’s no coincidence that hockey also sees a large number of violent interactions amongst fans in the stands. Another issue that tends to lead to aggression and violence in the stands is the overcrowding of stadiums and the seating arrangements. Often times, fans have spent time in traffic on their way to the event. They’ve spent time finding a parking spot and waited in line while trying to get into the stadium. They have most likely already had a few alcoholic beverages as well. All of these small â€Å"speedbumps† on the way to the event can tend to frustrate the spectators. Combining these small annoyances with alcohol can only frustrate them more. So, when they finally make it to their seat and realize that they are almost sitting on top of the person next to them, tension levels begin to rise. There are also venues that offer general admission tickets. These tickets don’t guarantee a seat for the spectator. There are many times where the spectator must stand for the entire event. Just as Madenson and Eck write, â€Å"One of the most consistent findings regarding higher levels of aggression in stadiums relates to the type of seating available to spectators Individual seats are related to lower violence levels, while general admission seating requires spectators to stand, often generates higher violence levels† (3). The tight crowds, as well as lack of order in the general admission area, lead to the higher level aggression. The easy entrance and exit flow of assigned seating also helps to lower the amount of altercations amongst spectators. Just like with any other problem, knowing the cause is the first step to finding a solution. In the case of spectator violence, there are many causes. As previously stated, one of the most common causes of spectator violence is overindulgence in alcoholic beverages before/during the games. The venue should begin patrolling the parking lots for â€Å"tailgaters† before the games. Since the parking lots are on private property, the venue has the ability to control the alcohol consumption. Once the event has begun, alcohol should only be served in plastic cups. Many overseas sporting venues have switched to plastic cups in order to minimize the use of glass bottles and even plastic bottles as dangerous missiles. All sports should increase the penalties for fighting during the game. Instead of small fines which barely put a dent in the athletes’ pocket, each league should institute large fines and suspensions without pay for fighting. This will definitely lower the amount of fights and hopefully will lessen the levels of aggression in the stands. As far as the seating situation in venues, there is not going to be a way to get rid of the general admission area. However, limiting the amount of general admission tickets sold will leave more room in the general admission area for the spectators. This will lower aggression levels and keep the spectators from getting to crowded. Sporting events are supposed to be a stress-reliever for spectators in today’s busy world. We should not have to worry about our safety while at these events. We spend a large amount of money for our tickets and part of this fee should be going towards security in the stadium. There are always going to be isolated events anytime a large group of strangers get together, however, making sure all precautions are taken is the most that we can ask of the venue. Spectator violence can become deadly, and in most situations can be easily prevented with just a few precautions. Works Cited Appleson, Gail. Spectator Violence: What they see is what they do?. American Bar Association Journal 68. 4 (1982): 404. Business Source Corporate.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Nurses For Changing Practice Requirements -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Nurses For Changing Practice Requirements? Answer: Introduction As highlighted by Moini (2012) the anatomical features of a human body is the combination of different systems that are required for functioning of daily activities. In shirt, there are eleven systems needed for the functioning of the body in a healthy manner. These systems are identified as the skeletal system, respiratory system, muscular system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, digestive or gastrointestinal system, hormonal or endocrine system, cutaneous or integumentary system, urinary system, immune or lymphatic system and reproductive system. The anatomical features are presented below- Body system Structure Skeletal system Joint, bones, cartilages respiratory system Nose, trachea, bronchi, larynx, alveoli and bronchioles muscular system Cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and smooth muscle Cardiovascular system Heart, blood, meta arterioles, arterioles, veins, venules, arteries and capillaries nervous system Nerves, brain, spinal cord Digestive system Mouth, stomach, oesophagus, salivary glands, liver, large intestine, small intestine, pharynx, anus and rectum Hormonal system Pituitary gland, testes parathyroid glands, pancreas, thyroid gland, hypothalamus, ovary, adrenal gland, and liver Cutaneous system Nail, hair and skin Urinary system Kidney, ureter, urethra and urinary bladder Immune system Adaptive or specific lymph nodes, non-specific or innate lymph nodes, immune cells and lymphocytes Reproductive system Fallopian tube, uterus, vagina, ovary, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, cervix, prostrate, penis and testis As stated by Chiras (2013) each of the different anatomical systems of the human body fulfills a certain set of functions and it has been found that some of the mentioned systems function in cross relationship with each other. Some systems however has their functioning as sub functions of the primary body system. The skeletal system provides support, shape, protection, strength and effectiveness of movements apart from production of blood cells. The nervous system controls and coordinates the different body functions and ensures flow of information across the body. The muscular system provides steadiness and deportment to the body, and helps in body parts movement and maintenance of body heat. The cardiovascular system circulates the blood across body and helps in heat distribution. The respiratory system is responsible for emission of carbon dioxide and inhalation of oxygen which is essential for living. Food is absorbed into the body and nutrients are assimilated with the help of the digestive system. Chemical coordination of the body is carried out by the hormonal system. The urinary system helps in maintaining acidity level and the water-salt balance in the body. Waste production in the form of urine is also done by this system. The cutaneous system eliminates the formed wastes and protec ts the tissues. It also helps in body temperature maintenance. Elimination of particulate substances and prevention from harmful external agents is the role played by the immune system. The reproductive system is responsible for generation of off-springs and is distinct in males and females. The above information would be relevant to car delivery in St. Vincents Care Home which is a modern care home providing specialist residential and nursing care for older people. Since the unit provides a wide range of services such as dementia care, end of life, nursing care, palliative care and residential care, care professionals are likely to address diverse needs of patients. The patient population is likely to present different health ailments and an accurate knowledge of the anatomical features and functioning of the body would aid in suitable care delivery. Patient condition diagnosis and respective effective treatment plan can be ensured when the professionals have a thorough knowledge of body functioning mechanisms at different stages of life (Moini 2012). The human body responds by a series of changes in the physiological systems while performing any physical or metabolic task. The respiratory system consists of specific organs that facilitate exchange of gases. Gas exchange occurs in the lungs through millions of alveoli, rich in blood supply. They bring in air in close contact with the blood and help in diffusion of oxygen into the bloodstream (Pocock, Richards and Richards 2013). During inhalation muscles of diaphragm contracts and generates a vacuum that helps fresh air from the atmosphere to rush in. In contrast, during exhalation the diaphragm relaxes, and deflates the lungs. The process of eating is controlled by digestive system (Hogan et al. 2014). During eating, food passes through the gastrointestinal tract which consists of the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Coordinated action of all these organs help in ingestion after food, its mixing with necessary enzymes, followed by di gestion and absorption. Excretion of metabolic waste occurs through the excretory system, primarily the kidneys, followed by the lungs and skin (Hall 2015). In addition to nitrogenous waste that contains urea, carbon dioxide is also excreted out from the body. While performing physical activity or exercise the muscle strength gets increased by pulling or lifting a weight. This enhance is physical performance, joint stability and balance. In addition, it also provides good posture and strengthens the bone. Therefore, a failure in any of these organ systems to effectively carry out their function would help health and social care practitioners diagnose abnormal it is in the human body (Muscolino 2016). The human body is composed of smallest independently functioning units called cells, which aggregate to form tissues. Thus, tissues can be defined as group of similar cells, carrying out a precise function. Composition of two or more different tissue types make up an anatomically distinct structure called an organ. The lungs alveolar tissues are made up of thin flat cells, lining the alveolar walls. These are surrounded by capillary that help in gaseous exchange by diffusion. Thin walls of the alveolar tissue provide a large surface area that facilitates exchange of gases. The nervous tissue is involved in sensing external and internal cues, followed by processing and transmission of information (Sherwood 2015). Nervous tissues are made up of the neurons and glial cells. While is the neurons, help in generation and conduction of electrical nerve impulse, glial cells provide support to the neuronal cells (Hall 2015). The skeletal muscles are made up of tissue that help in attaching, b ones to muscle by tendons, and facilitate conscious body movements. On the other hand the stomach is primarily composed of muscular epithelial and connective tissue, which helps in breaking down food particles into smaller units that provide energy to support the body (Heer and Egert 2015). Homeostasis refers to the tendency of a body to resist changes, in order to maintain a relatively constant and stable internal environment. Homeostasis is maintained by most organs of the body. It helps in maintaining the concentration of Ions glucose and pH of blood. Additionally, the stomach also plays an important role in maintaining a pH different from the other organs. Rigorous exercise often increases body temperature beyond the set point. Immediate blood flow to the skin speeds up heat loss and results in perspiration. This eventually helps in lowering the body temperature (Hall 2015). Heavy breathing also facilitates heat loss. Similar maintenance of internal body environment is facilitated by the hormone insulin. Excess levels of glucose in blood stream, stimulate pancreas to secrete insulin which convert glucose to glycogen and store it in the liver. If blood glucose drops low, the glycogen is converted back to glucose, thereby raising the levels. Maintaining healthy blood pressure is also a form of homeostasis (Sherwood 2015). Changes in blood pressure send signals to the brain, which instructs the heart to slow down or speed up in case of hypertension and hypotension, respectively (Zoungas et al. 2014). Furthermore, balance of acids and bases within the body are maintained by the kidneys as well as the lungs. The nervous system maintains homeostasis by controlling the breathing patterns. Exercise also helps in maintaining homeostasis by sending lactate to the muscle cells for providing energy. Therefore, there is a need to monitor the vital signs of the body in order to detect abnormality in the internal environment. Significance of the recordings of the past and other routine outcomes helps in the development of patient-focused research, evidence based practise along with computer-assisted quality management (Carlier et al. 2012). According to the authors, the measurement of routine outcomes and the history of the past have increased in the last 3 decades in the domains of both health care and mental health. This patent of taking records helps to manage the escalating cost I health care via continuous management approach and evidence based practise. In this case study, John is suffering from both dementia and diabetes and both these disease have a significant evidence based treating approach. According to the reports published by Bennett and Thomas (2014), effective episodes of depression related to past history may give rise to dementia during the later stages to life. In regards to diabetes, Loomba et al. (2012) have opined that family history of diabetes is associated with the development of diabetes. Thus the recording of the past history of patients John along with continuous monitoring will help to frame a personalised care and at the same time with help to develop evidence based approach social care approach that must be used in later stages for remodelling the care plan for diabetes and dementia. According to the Nursing Midwifery Board of UK, nurses must treat people as individuals via upholding their dignity. If at any point of John is found refusing to state is past medical history, he should never be forced. However, past history is mandatory in this case of disease assessment and thus attentive listening and giving preferences to his concern will help in uplifting his well-being and thereby helping to generate a comfortable relation where his physical, social and psychological needs can be assessed critically. However, the data gather rom John should never be disclosed against his rights and this strictly goes in favour of fifth code of ethics in Nursing and Midwifery board of UK that claims to respect the right of peoples privacy and confidentiality (Weeks et al. 2017). According to Das, Pal and Ghosh (2012), family history acts as a significant risk factor in majority of chronic diseases and the most important among them is diabetes. This family history of diabetes indicates the impacts of genetic susceptibility, the relation of shared environment in regards to disease development and other common behaviours associated with disease development. Thus assessment of the family history of Johns will help to get an idea in relation to his root cause behind the development of diabetes. Moreover, the family history of diabetes is a notable risk factor for the development of the disease apart from being directly associated with risk awareness and risk reducing behaviours. This family history also provides a useful insight towards the screening tool that can be used for detection and prevention of diabetes. Moreover, examining of medical records in relation to the dust, drug and food allergy will help in ascertaining that whether John is experiencing tremor s in hands and rapid heartbeat due to possible side-effects of the medicines or whether John is suffering from Parkinsons dementia that is associated with sudden tremors and increase in heartbeat (Buckley, and Salpeter 2015). Moreover, routine assessment taken in graphs, charts and table showing the body weight, heart rate, BMI-index, diabetic index and hydration will help in assessing his present health condition. If it is found after the detailed assessment of John that his tremors in hand and fast heart beat is resulting out of the medication then medical provision will be undertaken in order complete change of medication and framing a completely new medical plan. For example, cholinesterase is used as an important medication against dementia. However, cholinesterase is also associated with additional side-effects like neurological defects and other gastro-intestinal disorders. Moreover, peripheral cholinesterase activity is associated with vagal stimulation resulting in cardio-vascular disorders (Buckley and Salpeter 2015). Moreover, efforts must also be given for improving the cognitive and functional outcomes as according to Buckley and Salpeter (2015), there are no exact curative measures for dementia, and treatment exist to reverse or halt the disease progression. In the field of dementia the care plan must be organised in the form of regular monitoring and reporting data to the profess ionals while recognising the needs for emergency. As humans undergo the process of aging, the body structures tend to degenerate, leading to degeneration of the body functions as well. An individual undergoes the loss of the structural capacity and functional ability. These changes are witnessed in almost all body tissues. Cells are the basic units of life and the degeneration initiates at the cellular level. Cells might become larger and lose the ability to multiply rapidly. In some cases the tissues develop a deposition of lipids that hinders the ability to function in an effective manner. A number of cells might lose the functional ability and thus become incapable of removing waster products from the body, thereby leading to complications (Boore, Cook, and Shepherd 2016). . The systems that are mostly affected are the cardiovascular system, skeletal system, respiratory system, nervous system and digestive system. Deposition of fat in cardiac muscles leads to congestive heart failures. In case of skeletal system, depositions of phosphates and calcium lead to osteoporosis. The kidney may lose its function and cause improper balance of electrolytes.There also starts degeneration in the nervous system both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Some of the notable health conditions faced due to aging are osteoporosis, arthritis, Alzheimer, strokes, diabetes, cholesterol, blindness, deafness, hypertension, skin rashes, urinary infections, digestive problems (Fontana et al. 2014). There are different common health disorders that lead to changes in the structure and function of the body. The immune system acts as the main protective system in human body and common disorders such as infection have an adverse impact on the immune system. Infections due to protozoa, bacteria and virus changes the functioning of the immune system as various bodies are generated for the identification and removal of these infectious agent. As a result, the organs that have been affected by the infectious agents become painful and enlarged. The two forms of lymphocytes generated by the immune system are responsible for fighting against the toxins generated by the agents (Hall 2015). Apart from the immune system, the impact on common disorders on the other body systems is also distinct. In case of the cardiovascular system, the common disorders to lead poor pumping of heart occlusion, hardening of veins and deposition of fatty plaques. In case of digestive system, the disorders such a s gall stones, ulcer cirrhosis and gastritis is linked with poor functioning of the digestion, assimilation and absorption system. Disorders of the brain have been associated with damage to the central nervous system and cerebral disorders. Disorders of the skeletal system lead to defect in joint movements and deformity (Boore, Cook and Shepherd 2016). As per the case study, John has been suffering from dementia and complaints of recurrent episodes of difficulty in breathing. He also has a rapid heartbeat and tremors in fingers. The patient has been diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus has been indicated to have a strong relationship with multiple comorbidities such as heart palpitations and increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In addition, diabetes leads to neuropathy and increases the risks of symptoms such as shaking and trembling of hands (Dickinson and O'Flynn 2016). Primary care for the patient would revolve around management of diabetes through pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. The care giver needs to take preventive action to control the blood glucose level and monitor the same on a regular basis. Since the patient is suffering from dementia, providing care might pose challenges. The patient is to be shown affection and care while being administered the intervention. Since the pat ient is old aged with degenerated body functioning, it would be essential to provide appropriate care as per the guidelines of geriatric care (Glasby 2017). References Bennett, S. and Thomas, A.J., 2014. Depression and dementia: cause, consequence or coincidence?.Maturitas,79(2), pp.184-190. Boore, J., Cook, N. and Shepherd, A., 2016.Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology for Nursing Practice. Sage. Buckley, J.S. and Salpeter, S.R., 2015. A risk-benefit assessment of dementia medications: systematic review of the evidence.Drugs aging,32(6), pp.453-467. Carlier, I.V., Meuldijk, D., Van Vliet, I.M., Van Fenema, E., Van der Wee, N.J. and Zitman, F.G., 2012. Routine outcome monitoring and feedback on physical or mental health status: evidence and theory.Journal of evaluation in clinical practice,18(1), pp.104-110. Chiras, D.D., 2013.Human Body Systems, 1st ed. United States of America: Jones and Bartlett Learning. Das, M., Pal, S. and Ghosh, A., 2012. Family history of type 2 diabetes and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Asian Indians.Journal of cardiovascular disease research,3(2), pp.104-108. Dickinson, H. and O'Flynn, J., 2016.Evaluating Outcomes in Health and Social Care 2e. Policy Press. Fontana, L., Kennedy, B.K., Longo, V.D., Seals, D. and Melov, S., 2014. Medical research: treat ageing.Nature,511(7510), pp.405-407. Glasby, J., 2017.Understanding health and social care. Policy Press. Hall, J.E., 2015.Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology e-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences, pp.795-850. Heer, M. and Egert, S., 2015. Nutrients other than carbohydrates: their effects on glucose homeostasis in humans.Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews,31(1), pp.14-35. Hogan, B.L., Barkauskas, C.E., Chapman, H.A., Epstein, J.A., Jain, R., Hsia, C.C., Niklason, L., Calle, E., Le, A., Randell, S.H. and Rock, J., 2014. Repair and regeneration of the respiratory system: complexity, plasticity, and mechanisms of lung stem cell function.Cell stem cell,15(2), pp.123-138. Loomba, R., Abraham, M., Unalp, A., Wilson, L., Lavine, J., Doo, E. and Bass, N.M., 2012. Association between diabetes, family history of diabetes, and risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis.Hepatology,56(3), pp.943-951. Moini, J., 2012.Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals, 1st ed. United States of America: Jones and Bartlett Learning. Muscolino, J.E., 2016.The Muscular System Manual-E-Book: The Skeletal Muscles of the Human Body. Elsevier Health Sciences, pp.21-54. (2018).Nursing and Midwifery Board of UK, Code of Ethics. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Feb. 2018]. Pocock, G., Richards, C.D. and Richards, D., 2013.Human physiology. Oxford university press, pp.139-248. Pollister, A.W. ed., 2017.Cells and Tissues. Academic Press, pp.32-59. Sherwood, L., 2015.Human physiology: from cells to systems. Cengage learning, pp.1-21. Weeks, K., Coben, D., Lum, G. and Pontin, D., 2017. Developing nursing competence: Future proofing nurses for the changing practice requirements of 21st century healthcare.Nurse education in practice,27, pp.A3-A4. Zoungas, S., Chalmers, J., Neal, B., Billot, L., Li, Q., Hirakawa, Y., Arima, H., Monaghan, H., Joshi, R., Colagiuri, S. and Cooper, M.E., 2014. Follow-up of blood-pressure lowering and glucose control in type 2 diabetes.New England Journal of Medicine,371(15), pp.1392-14